Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение
«Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт
цветоводства и субтропических культур»
(ФГБНУ ВНИИЦиСК)

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Barua S.C., Chakma Shelika, Gogoi A.S.
 
Department of Tea Husbandry & Technology,
Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Tea (Camellia spp.) is one of the most important plantation crops of India. At present three basic types viz. China, Assam and Cambod or their hybrids are cultivated. Tea plant is cross pollinated plant and it forms a variety of the tea germplasm which can constantly be used in the long-term breeding process. Since morphological characteristics are influenced by environmental factors exhibiting a continuous variation and a high degree of plasticity, difficulties arise in the identification of discrete taxonomic groups. Biochemical characters may used to assess variability for the efficient management and proper utilization of germplasm in the breeding programmes. Therefore, identification and screening of excellent tea germplasm become particularly important.

In the present investigation, an effort was made to characterize and estimate the variation of 20 tea germplasm (coded as THT 001 to THT 020) growing in the Experimental Garden for Plantation Crops, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat on the basis of physiological, morphological and biochemical characters. Three types of tea indigenous to the geographical regions of South-East Asia viz. China, Assam and Cambod types were considered as standards.

Numerical taxonomic studies were carried out using various morphological, physiological and biochemical characters adopting both dimensional method and using morphological descriptors as per recommendation of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) Rome, Italy (1997).

The correlation similarity co-efficient matrix value utilizing physiological and morphological characters has been found to range between 0.961 to 1.000 indicating low degree of variation whereas for the biochemical characters, it has been found to range between 0.000 to 1.000 indicating high degree of variation amongst the germplasm. The lowest similarity value for morphological characters was observed between THT 005, THT 006 and THT 014, whereas highest similarity value could be found between THT 001 and THT 004, THT 003 and THT 007, and THT 018 and THT 020. In case of biochemical characters, lowest similarity value was observed between THT 014 and THT 020, whereas highest similarity value was observed between THT 001 and THT 014, THT 005 and THT 017 and between THT 012 and THT 015.

Cluster analysis using morhological and biochemical characters of the germplasm studied have been produced in two dendrograms showing five clusters in each. Few germplasm have been found to form a discriminate cluster. This indicates that the characters studied are influenced by environment and show continuous variation and hence may not be adequate enough to discriminate these germplasm even if they are genetically different.
 
Key words: Tea, germplasm, taxonomy, descriptors
 
Comments
 
 
Bhupen Deka, 1S.C.Barua, 2 D.Borthakur, 3S.Sabhapondit, 4R.C.Gogoi

*TocklaiTeaResearchInstitute,TRA,Jorhat,1DepartmentofTeaHusbandry&Technology,Assam Agricultural University,Jorhat,2Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics,TRA,Jorhat ,3Department of Bio-chemistry,TRA,Jorhat,4Department of TP & MA Department,TRA,Jorhat,Assam
*corresponding author email id:Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
 
In India, the existing clones and variety of tea plants have been developed for manufacturing of black tea (CTC & Orthodox Tea). But till now no clone & variety of tea have been identified exclusively for manufacturing of Green Tea (steamed/ roasted) So one humble attempt was made to identify tea clones from the existing released clones for preference of manufacturing Green Tea on the basis of their taste & their Polyphenol: Amino Acid ratio. Selected ten clones representing the China Jat,Assam Jat,Cambod Variety and Industry released Clones of Assam on the basis of their availability and potential quality on CTC & Orthodox Tea were analyzed with their morphological character, chemical analysis and green tea taste by tea taster indicates that S3A3,P126, TV-7,TV-17 have the best potentiality for manufacturing green tea.
Comments

Gogoi Aditi Smith, Boruah Jyotish, Barua S.C.

Department of Tea Husbandry & Technology,
Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam,
e-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
 
Tea (Camellia sinensis), an evergreen plant and one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world is processed from the young tender leaves of the plant. Tea is drunk in almost every country around the world and has reached a ceremonial status in many places both as a social and medicinal beverage. Tea contains bioactive polyphenols, mainly the catechins, anthocyanins etc. which play an important role in green and black tea quality. Tea leaves has high antioxidant activity which is important for health and has been a potential important raw material for the pharmaceutical industry.

Tea is a potential commercial crop in India which gives a reasonable income in terms of foreign currency. It has been a valuable perennial industrial crop in terms of economy, pharmaceutical materials, environment protection, and also socio-culture aspects of North East India. At present, tea cultivation is largely confined to a few popular high yielding varieties from vegetative propagated materials. Assam produces some of the finest and expensive teas and has its own variety Camellia assamica which have a distinctive aroma, strength, colour and flavor. In order to increase the foreign currency income from tea production, introduction of improved varieties with high production and quality is the need of the hour. Possible solution is to look for planting material that could retain or at least compensate this loss in the yield and quality of tea under the prevailing climatic conditions through making foray into specialty tea market such as pigmented tea. Commercial exploitation of unique pigmented tea clones available in Assam needs extensive evaluation of quality plant material at both yield as well as biochemical level.

The present study has been undertaken to characterize twenty (20) unidentified germplasm exhibiting variations on leaf colour growing in the Experimental Garden for Plantation Crops, Assam Agricultural University, Assam. The field survey and laboratory investigation were done during the period 2017-18. For studying biochemical characters viz. total Anthocyanin, total Antioxidant and total Catechin, the plant material plucked as a standard of two leaves and a bud from the studied germplasm during July to November for 2017 for two plucking seasons. Total anthocyanin was assayed by using the pH differential method. The antioxidant was determined by the method given by Molyneux (2004). Total catechin content in tea samples was estimated by following the method of ISO 14502-2 (ISO, 2005). Post hoc analysis was used to test the significance level and correlation similarity co-efficient matrix was used to analyze the genetic relationship among clones.

It was observed that all the germplasms except THT 027 and THT 034 have higher anthocyanin and antioxidant properties amongst all 20 germplasm. It was also observed that the germplasms having higher anthocyanin content are having low catechin content. An increasing trend of anthocyanin, antioxidant and total catechin content was observed from rain flush to autumn flush in all the germplasms. It was also observed that the germplasms with purple young shoot colour viz, THT 024, THT 032 and THT 039 had the highest anthocyanin content ( 39 mg/l, 43.7 mg/l and 40.56 mg/l respectively). In the present study, the highest total catechins content was observed in THT 027 (12.36%) followed by THT 034 (7.97%) and THT 030 (7.38%). Till now in North East India, no clones have been established as good planting material for green tea manufacturing. So from the present study, the clones with high catechins content can be recommended for further study for developing planting materials for green tea manufacturing.

From the correlation similarity proximity matrix utilizing the biochemical parameters it was observed that the similarity value ranges from 0.118 to 1.000 indicating a high degree of variation amongst the germplasm. The highest similarity value (0.118) was observed between THT 039 and THT 034 whereas lowest similarity value i.e. 1.000 could be found between the germplasm THT 021 and THT 022, THT 025 and THT 028 and between THT 026 and THT 040.

On hierarchical cluster analysis based on dendogram, the germplasms with higher anthocyanin and antioxidant properties THT 024, THT 032 and THT 039 formed discriminated clusters. They can be used for producing the new and unique tea product, “the purple tea” for exploring the export market for specialty tea and can make an alternative for tea drinkers due to its health benefits.

Key words: Tea, Germplasm, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant, Catechin
 
Comments
 
Aditi Smith1,  Borua P.K.2
 
1Department of Tea Husbandry and Technology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-786 013, Assam, India
2Department of Life Science, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh-786 004, Assam, India
 
Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is a heterogeneous woody perennial plant with many overlapping physiological and biochemical attributes. It produces the oldest and most popular non-alcoholic soft beverage across the world and is one of the most important cash crops of many countries, including India. Indian tea is among the finest in the world owing to heavy investments in tea processing units, continuous innovation, and strategic market expansion. With a longstanding history of cultivating and consuming tea, North East India is believed to be highly rich in genetic diversity of tea. The work been undertaken to evaluate and document diverse tea species on the basis of physiological and biochemical characters which may provide the important informative scientific basic for tea breeding programs.

The physiological and biochemical profile in tea from fourteen (14) industry tea clones clones viz. R94, M1, P126, P18, P38, P195, Keyhang, N436, S3A3, T3E3, Teenali-17, N325, N305 and L807had been considered as experimental materials grown in Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam was investigated for four harvesting seasons till 2017. For physiological characters viz. days required for bud break, days required to reach the tipping height from bud break, girth of the primaries, numbers of primaries reached to the tipping height and number of maintenance foliage per primary, shoot yield by assessment of plucking point density and weight of plucked shoot, shoot growth rate and specific leaf area were studied to observe the physiology of pruning performance of fourteen industry clones by adopting different physical and dimensional methods. The clones T3E3 and P195 showed higher number primaries per bush reaching to tipping height which is an important growth character after pruning operation. The shoot growth was found good in S3A3, Teenali-17, T3E3, P18, R94 and P38 whereas nursery growth performance was found good in R94, N436, P126, N325 and Teenali-17 which is an important criterion for breeding propgramme. The study revealed that a highly significant and positive correlation between yield and plucking point density (0.731**), girth of primary (0.341**), primary per pruning stick (0.316**) and primary per bush reaching tipping height (0.303*).

To estimate the biochemical characters four biochemical parameters viz. total polyphenols, caffeine, free amino acids and pigments were taken. The estimations were done for four plucking season with five replications all the biochemical characters. Significant seasonal variation was observed in total polyphenol content showing the highest value in second flush (25.11%) followed by autumn flush (23.54%), first flush (22.74%) and rain flush (22.46%). Significant seasonal variation was also observed in total chlorophyll content showing the highest value in rain flush (2.41 mg/g) followed by second flush (1.80 mg/g), autumn flush (1.43 mg/g) and first flushes (1.08 mg/g). The results of present study may be used for profiling the estate clones for black and green tea manufacturing purpose and also for future breeding programme for developing new clones.

In correlation study, total polyphenols exhibited significant positive correlation with caffeine and significant negative correlation with total amino acids. The results of correlation among the biochemical parameters also indicated that there is a negative correlation among the amount of pigments and quality factors such as polyphenol and caffeine. Carotenoid has a positive correlation with chlorophyll but a negative one with polyphenols that cause transparency and color in tea.

The correlation similarity proximity matrix with squared Euclidean Distance method utilizing both physiological and biochemical parameters has been found to range from 1.00 to 0.009 indicating a high degree of variation among the studied materials. The highest similarity value (0.009) was observed between clone N436 and P18and the lowest similarity value (1.000) was found between the clone P 38 and Teenali-17. The results of present study may have an important role in identifying taxa and profiling the estate clones for black and green tea manufacturing purpose. This information may help in identifying genotypes with high production potential which could be used as genetics resources in tea breeding programmes and can be used for improvement of the commercially grown tea.

Key words: Tea, Germplasm, Tea shoots, Polyphenol, Caffeine, Pigment
 
Comments


Нечаева Т. Л., Зубова М. Ю., Загоскина Н. В.
 
Институт физиологии растений им. К.А. Тимирязева Российской академии наук,
г. Москва, Россия, e-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
 
Аннотация. Исследованы морфофизиологические характеристики каллусных культур, инициированных из листьев (ЧЛ), стеблей (ЧС) и корней (ЧК) чайного растения (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, грузинская разновидность) и накопление в них фенольных соединений (ФС). Показали значительное сходство морфофизиологических параметров каллусных культур. Наибольшее содержание ФС отмечено в каллусах ЧС, тогда как в ЧЛ и ЧК оно было ниже на 30 и 50%, соответственно. Делается вывод о том, что каллусные культуры, инициированные из различных органов чайного растения, в определенной степени сохраняли специфику фенольного метаболизма исходных эксплантов.
 
Ключевые слова: Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, культуры in vitro, фенольные соединения.
Comments
 
Рындин А.В., Туов М.Т., Малюкова Л.С.
 
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт цветоводства и субтропических культур»,
г. Сочи, Россия
 
Обобщены основные этапы развития отрасли чаеводства в России – выделение чаепригодных земель, динамика листосборных площадей, чаепроизводящие хозяйства и основные формы государственной поддержки. Отражены основные итоги научных исследований Всероссийского института цветоводства и субтропических культур по культуре чая за 125-летний период: селекционная работа, агротехнологические аспекты возделывания чая в России, почвенно-агрохимические и физиолого-биохимические исследования.
 
Ключевые слова: чай, отрасль чаеводства, итоги научных исследований, селекция, агротехнологии.

Gvasaliya M.
 
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops”
c. Sochi, Russia, e-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
 
A long term studies of yield, biochemical composition and leaf quality indicators of perspective mutant forms developed by famous breeder Kerkadze I.G. in the paper are presented: №№ 582 (obtained by radioactive mutagenesis – aneuploid 2n = 36); 2264 (colchicine mutant – mixoploid 2n = 38); 3823 (obtained by radioactive mutagenesis – myxoploid 2n = 42). Kolhida chose as a control cultivar.

Keywords: tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze), mutagenesis induction, mutant tea forms, yield, biochemical value, quality indicators.
Comments
 
 
Гвасалия М. В.
 
Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт цветоводства и субтропических культур»,
г. Сочи Россия, e-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
 
В природных условиях культура чая отличается высокой пластичностью и склонностью к естественному мутированию (спонтанному мутагенезу), что дает богатый материал для отбора ценных для селекции форм. При выведении новых сортов чая – отбор в акклиматизированных популяциях чая остается основным методом селекции. Советскими учеными подробно изучены положительные и отрицательные признаки, которые напрямую коррелируют с показателями урожайности, морозостойкости, биохимическими и технологическими показателями. Существует большой спектр морфологических, физиологических и биохимических признаков, по которым производится отбор новых форм чая.

Ключевые слова: растения чая, отбор, признак, вегетационный период, генеративная активность, лист, масса флешей, урожай, биохимические показатели.
Comments

Ревишвили Т.О., Дзнеладзе З. Ю., Абхазава Д.М., Долидзе Б.З.

Институт чая, субтропических культур и чайной промышленности Грузинского аграрного университета. г. Озургети, Анасеули, Грузия
 
В статье приводятся данные исследований по разработке комплексной безотходной технологии чая и получения биологически активных продуктов. Безотходная технология основана на глубокой и интенсивной обработке сырья и предусматривает получение различных видов чая (листового, мелкого, мелкодисперсного, гранулированного, прессованного), а также биологически активных экстрактов и биопрепаратов. Из экстракционного жома возможно получение дополнительных продуктов пищевого и кормового назначения.

Ключевые слова: чай, технология, процессы, биологически активные соединения.
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